It is time to build a biomass gasification cookstove. With this tutorial you can do it in an easy and cheap way. You can adapt the instructions to the materials you have, or you can find or acquire. There is no overly critical parameter. If you make modifications and does not work 100%, adjust and modify to achieve better results experimentally.
The tutorial teaches us how to build a biomass gasifier cookstove called Kaña!!!, Version 1.0, and includes:
- An explanatory text which lists the material necessary to perform it.
- The needed tools list.
- Assembly instructions.
- A video recorded during the biomass gasification course I did in Sunseed which shows all the steps to follow.
- The instructions for use.
- A video about the success story of Lucia, who built the Lucificador and got the absolute record of burning time with a powerful flame for 35 minutes using 350 gr. of dry cane.
- A section with miscellaneous information.
List of materials
- External cylinder: galvanized iron pipe for chimneys or similar 150 mm. diameter. 30 cm. long is needed.
- Fuel cylinder: galvanized iron pipe for chimneys or similar 120 mm. diameter. We need 25 cm. in length.
- Riser and flame guard: galvanized iron pipe for chimneys or similar 120 mm. diameter. It takes 8 cm. in length.
- Separators and support for the pots: galvanized iron threaded rod 6 or 8 mm. diameter. 1 meter long .
- Nuts and washers for the rod, 25 units of each .
- Fuel cylinder base: galvanized iron sheet metal or similar 0.5 mm. thick. 18×18 cm. piece.
- Concentrator lid: galvanized iron sheet metal or similar 0.5 mm. thick. Piece of 21×21 cm.
- Cooker legs: copper tube or similar 20 mm. in diameter. 3 pieces of 8 cm .
- Rivets 4×10 , 10 units.
- Suitable screws for attaching the legs to the stove .
- Black heatproof paint up to 600 º to paint the outer cylinder. It is optional, but recommended to protect and provide durability.
- Tape measure.
- Angle grinder or hacksaw to cut the tube and the rod. (recommended radial)
- Scissors for cutting sheet metal.
- Metal drill with 4 and 6 bits.
- Drill bit to make the 5 cm. diameter hole for the burner (is possible do it with other systems.)
- Rivet gun.
- Round and flat metal files.
- Fixed spanner 10.
- Fuel cylinder
- Cut a 25 cm. length piece of 120 mm. diameter tube.
- File the edges to remove the burr .
- External cylinder
- Cut a 30 cm. length piece of 150 mm. tube.
- File the edges to remove the burr .
- At 4 cm. from the base, drill two 6 mm. holes opposed 180 degrees to fit the rod which is going to hold the fuel cylinder.
- To attach the spacers between the two cylinders, you have to make 3 holes spaced 120 ° at 9 cm. of the base and another 3 at 22 cm. of the base. They are not critical distances.
- File all burrs .
- Cut 6 pieces of 40 mm. threaded rod.
- Filing ends to allow the nuts to spin well.
- Placing a divider on each outer cylinder hole intended therefor.
- Fuel cylinder support
- Cut one piece of 17 cm. threaded rod.
- File the ends to allow the nuts to spin well.
- Place the rod in the outer cylinder holding it with two nuts on the ends.
- Fuel cylinder base
- Cut a piece of metal sheet 18×18 cm.
- File the burrs .
- Draw with the marker a circle equivalent diameter of the centering cylinder fuel. You can use the same cylinder as a template.
- Draw 6 square or rounded tabs about 3 cm. size around the circle. ( see video )
- Cut with the scissors the metal sheet with the final shape.
- Place the piece on hole of the cylinder that will be the base.
- Fold the tabs to hug the cylinder.
- Drill, with the number four bit, the tabs simultaneously with the cylinder body.
- Place a rivet in each hole.
- Draw with the pen a dot matrix in the new basis with about 2 cm. of separation between them.
- Drill with number 6 bit all the holes.
- Concentrator lid and hob
- Cut a piece of metal sheet of 21×21 cm.
- File the burrs.
- Draw a square 15 cm. side centered into the piece.
- Fold 90º the 3 cm. flaps using the hammer. Make a small cut at the corners to facilitate folding.
- Overlap the corners to get the final shape.
- Drill with the number 4 drill a hole in each corner to place a rivet that holds the tabs together.
- Drill at the top one 5 cm. diameter centered hole. Use the special drill bit or make multiple smaller holes and file .
- Drill, with the number 6 drill bit, 4 holes at the corners of the lid.
- Place 4 pieces of 12 cm. threaded rod in the corners fastened with nuts and washers.
- Support legs
- Cut three pieces of about 8 cm. length of the tube destined to it.
- Sawing a slit about 3 cm deep in the tube diameter.
- Put the legs separate 120º between them in the cylinder base.
- Drill a hole in the leg and the cylinder to put a screw to hold leg towards the cylinder.
The fuel cylinder should be positioned centered within the outer cylinder. To achieve this, set the spacers with the right size and distance and tighten the nuts.
Once this is done, the gasifier is ready for use.
Using the KAÑA!!! gasifier
- Prepare the biomass. You can use various types of biomass. Always should be dry. In the case of using cane (caña in spanish), our preferred biomass, can be done in two ways: with shreded cane, or with cane cut into pieces of about 21 cm. long and quartered lengthwise. In the video you can see how to prepare the cane cut into oblong pieces. Care must be exercised in squashing the cane knots, because if not, load the cylinder will be difficult .
- Loading the fuel cylinder. Make sure that, after filling the cylinder, there is enough spaces between the biomass so the air entering from the fuel cylinder base can pass through. Also check that there are no large spaces, it would not work well. In practice the correct density depends of each type of biomass. We have to leave enough space at the top to light the fire that will start the pyrolysis. If used cane cut to 21 cm., is about 4 cm.
- Light the fire. You can use any material that burns well and fast. Light a small fire not protruding the fuel cylinder. If it does, putting the lid will generate smoke and/or turn off the fire. We have successfully used paper, old rope, cane cut into small sticks and other tinder materials.
- Place the concentrator lid and the riser. Once the fire is burning well, we will observe that gradually starts the biomass pyrolysis, because we see that turns black becoming coal, and the flames begin to appear at the edge of the fuel cylinder, stopping coming from the biomass itself. At this point, we put the concentrator lid, which channels the flame and gives power and some pressure. To protect it from the wind, put the riser.
- Start cooking! It only remains to put a pot or pan on top of the frame and prepare our food.
Congrats! for your new system for cooking.
You can feel proud, because its environmental impact is very low when using renewable biomass.
Watch the video of Lucia. She built the Kaña!!! gasifier who holds the time record on a single combustion. With about 350 gr. of cane, the strong flame lasted 35 minutes, and half an hour more, the coal.
Do you know that…
- With 350 gr. of dry cane, are usually obtained 25 minutes of flame? The record is 35 !
- With 500 gr. of pellets, is obtained 1 hour of flames?
- You can use dried peel of almonds or other nuts. You will get surprising flame times.
- The peel of oranges, lemons, grapefruits and other citrus fruits, well dried, are a perfect fuel.
- You can take advantage of small chunks of wood that would otherwise be dumped or badly burned in the fireplace.
- Never cut trees to get wood, but many woody debris are thrown that could be gasified. It has very good performance.
- As gasification is perfect combustion of the gases obtained in the pyrolysis, no smoke is produced. We emit to the atmosphere water vapor and carbon dioxide, part of the plant took to grow.
- Once the flame is over, you can still use the heat of the charcoal to cook at least another half hour. The remaining ash can also be used for other uses.
- If you prefer, you can turn it off with water and you get coal to burn at another time or to integrate it into the soil of your crops with its many beneficial effects for the earth.
- In the last case, you will also be sequestering part of carbon in the plant and not emitting it into the atmosphere, so you are fighting the greenhouse effect and climate change.
- This type of stove is called TLUD, Top Lit, Up Draft. It means you light on top the fire, and the draft goes up. This differs from other stoves, for example those using the rocket system .
- You can experiment with other materials and sizes. You can improvise a TLUD stove in a few minutes with 2 cans of food.
This project was developed in the Appropriate Technology Department of Sunseed in 2013 while I was the coordinator. The aim was to create a system that, using local resources, allow to cook with low environmental impact and reduce the consumption and fossil fuel bill (propane in this case).
Kaña!!! was the first step. The next were Kañón!!! and a kitchen where use the biomass gasifiers.Sunseed Desert Technology, is an organization that demonstrates, develops and communicates daily life systems of low environmental impact.
Kaña!!! Honillos de gasificación de biomasa by Pako Ibáñez is under a Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Unported.